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NATIONAL MONUMENTS SERVICE

Archaeological Survey of Ireland

The Archaeological Survey of Ireland operates a flat or simplified hierarchical 'class’ list to support the management and curation of its records and assist in indexing and maximising the retrieval of information. The list is arranged alphabetically and is accompanied by a ‘scope note’ for each term which may also include guidance on its use. As the terms have evolved over time they cannot be considered exhaustive or comprehensive. They are indicative of its record holdings and reflect the incremental and organic manner in which material has been added to the archive over many years, especially for monuments dating from the post-1700 AD period. While every effort has been made to ensure consistency of use, the terms should be considered as a fairly authoritative guideline only. The list is subject to review and amendments and enhancements are made on an on-going basis.


Class List Definitions

Almshouse

A house endowed by a benefactor devoted to the shelter of the poor. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Altar

A structure of stone in the form of a table or block used as the focus for a religious ritual, but not part of a church. This class term is also used for features named 'Altar' on Ordnance Survey maps where there is no surviving visible trace above ground. These can be of any date from prehistory onwards. See also Mass-rock.



Anomalous stone group

A group of stones, usually standing, which cannot be classified as any other known archaeological monument type on present evidence. They may be all that remains or is visible of a partially destroyed or obscured archaeological monument which may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Architectural feature

Part of the cut-stone fabric of a building/structure (e.g. window, doorway) that has been removed from its original position. These may date to any period from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Architectural fragment

A piece of worked wood or carved stone that has been removed from a building. These may be of any date from the early medieval period (5th-12th centuries AD) onwards.



Armorial plaque

A stone tablet or slab bearing a coat of arms, sometimes accompanied by a date and/or inscription. This term is not used for memorials of the dead found in churches, for which see ‘Wall monument’. These date from the late medieval or post-medieval periods (c. 1400-1600 AD) onwards.



Armorial plaque (present location)

A stone tablet or slab bearing a coat of arms, sometimes accompanied by a date and/or inscription. This term is not used for memorials of the dead found in churches, for which see ‘Wall monument’. In this case the armorial plaque has been moved from its original location. These date from the late medieval or post-medieval periods (c. 1400-1600 AD) onwards.



Asylum

A place of refuge or protection, usually referring to an institution for the care or relief of the blind or mentally ill. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Axe factory

A place where stone axes were quarried and/or manufactured. In Ireland identified axe factories date to the Neolithic period (c. 4000-2400 BC).



Bakery

A building/structure where bread was baked. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Barn

A building used primarily for storing hay, grain, farm equipment or as a shelter for livestock. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Barracks

A building or group of buildings used to house members of the police or armed forces. These date from the late 17th century AD onwards.



Barrow - bowl-barrow

A circular or oval raised area (generally over 1m above the external ground level) with an external fosse and sometimes an outer bank. The name 'bowl-barrow' refers to the mound element which is like an inverted bowl. They contain and/or cover burials and were in use from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age (c. 2400 BC - AD 400).



Barrow - ditch barrow

A circular or oval level or slightly raised area (less than 1m above the external ground level) defined by a fosse; generally less than 20m in diameter. They are often found in clusters or in association with other barrow types. They are funerary monuments that may date to the Neolithic (c. 4000-2400 BC) but more usually date to the Bronze/Iron Ages (c. 2400 BC - AD 400). See also Ring-ditch.



Barrow - embanked barrow

A circular or oval raised area, generally less than 20m in diameter, enclosed by a continuous broad/large bank with a level or a concave interior. Generally there is no external fosse and no entrance. The proportion of the bank size (large) in relation to the internal diameter (small) is important in identifying this site type. These are part of the Bronze/Iron Age burial tradition (c. 2400 BC - AD 400).



Barrow - mound barrow

A circular or oval earthen or earth and stone mound with no external features. Mounds found in association with other barrow types are likely to be mound barrows. They are funerary in nature and contain and/or cover burials. Excavated examples have been dated to the Bronze and Iron Ages (c. 2400 BC - AD 400).



Barrow - pond barrow

A shallow, man-made, circular depression enclosed around its rim by an earthen bank. These are part of the Bronze/Iron Age burial tradition (c. 2400 BC - AD 400).



Barrow - ring-barrow

A circular or oval raised area (generally up to 1m above the external ground level or level with it) enclosed by fosse(s) and outer bank(s), with or without an entrance. These are part of the Bronze/Iron Age burial tradition (c. 2400 BC - AD 400).



Barrow - stepped barrow

An oval or circular platform with a raised, flat-topped or rounded central area, giving the monument its characteristic 'stepped' profile, sometimes with a bank on the outer edge of the platform. These are part of the Bronze/Iron Age burial tradition (c. 2400 BC - AD 400).



Barrow - unclassified

An artificial mound of earth or earth and stone, normally constructed to contain or conceal burials. Used where it is not possible to identify the specific type. See also Barrow - bowl-barrow, Barrow - ditch barrow, Barrow - embanked barrow, Barrow - mound barrow, Barrow - pond barrow, Barrow - ring-barrow and Barrow - stepped barrow. These are part of the Bronze/Iron Age burial tradition (c. 2400 BC - AD 400).



Bastioned fort

A fort with projecting works, generally level with the ramparts, for mounting artillery to provide for flanking fire. The early rounded or semicircular form was gradually replaced by the four-sided, Italian-style, angled bastion from the early 16th century AD onwards. These are popularly called star-shaped forts.



Battery

A structure of earth and/or stone where artillery is mounted. Examples generally date from the later 16th century AD onwards.



Battlefield

A battle is defined as a significant military engagement, excluding sieges and urban warfare, which took place before 1800 A.D. and which involved in the order of one thousand or more combatants. Military engagements which involved lesser numbers of combatants may be included where they are considered to be of special historical or archaeological significance. A battlefield is the identifiable and definable geographic area(s) where a battle took place. For mapping purposes its extent is determined as the outer limit of the area(s) within which the majority of the fighting took place and may also include any directly related sites intrinsically linked with the conduct, command or direction of the battle.



Bawn

A courtyard of a medieval house, tower house or fortified house (12th - 17th centuries AD). There are some instances where the bawn survives but the building it was constructed to defend does not.



Beacon

A man-made feature, usually considered to be a fixed visual mark on land or in the water, used as a navigational aid to the approaches of a bay or harbour. These are usually of solid construction and may or may not be lighted. These date from the 12th century onwards. See also lighthouse.



Bee-boles

A series of recesses in a wall in which bee skeps/beehives are placed. These are found in walled gardens accompanying houses dating from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Blockhouse

A detached fort occupied by a garrison, usually sited so as to command a strategic location. These date from the early 16th to the mid- 17th century AD.



Booley hut

A circular or rectangular dwelling, occupied seasonally, associated with the summer pasturing of livestock, usually on upland or marginal land. Generally considered to date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Boulder-burial

A large boulder or capstone of megalithic proportions, resting on a number of supporting stones, usually three or four in number, which, in most cases, do not form a recognisable chamber structure. Excavations suggest a Bronze Age date for this burial monument (c. 2400-500 BC).



Boundary mound

A mound constructed primarily of earth located on or near a known boundary. These date from the 19th century onwards.



Boundary stone

A stone that indicates the limit of an area. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Boundary stone (present location)

A stone that indicates the limit of an area, which has been moved from its original location. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Bowling green

A closely mown piece of ground used for the game of lawn bowling. These date to the 17th and 18th centuries.



Breakwater

A structure which protects a beach or harbour by breaking the force of the waves. These date from the to the Viking period (9th -12th centuries AD) onwards.



Brewery

A commercial complex of buildings for the brewing of beer. These date from the 19th century AD onwards.



Brickworks

An industrial manufacturing complex producing bricks. These date from the 18th to the 20th century AD.



Bridge

A structure of wood, stone, iron, brick or concrete, etc., built to span a river or ravine in order to facilitate the crossing of pedestrians or vehicles. These date from the medieval period (5th - 12th centuries AD) onwards.



Building

A structure that has or had a roof where there is insufficient evidence to determine function. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Bullaun stone

The term 'bullaun' (from the Irish word 'bullán', which means a round hollow in a stone, or a bowl) is applied to boulders of stone or bedrock with hemispherical hollows or basin-like depressions, which may have functioned as mortars. They are frequently associated with ecclesiastical sites and holy wells and so may have been used for religious purposes. Other examples which do not appear to have ecclesiastical associations can be found in bedrock or outcrop in upland contexts, often under blanket bog, and are known as bedrock mortars. They date from the prehistoric period to the early medieval period (5th-12th centuries AD).



Bullaun stone (present location)

The term 'bullaun' (from the Irish word 'bullán', which means a round hollow in a stone, or a bowl) is applied to boulders of stone or bedrock with hemispherical hollows or basin-like depressions, which may have functioned as mortars. In this case the bullaun stone has been moved from its original location. They are frequently associated with ecclesiastical sites and holy wells and so may have been used for religious purposes. Other examples which do not appear to have ecclesiastical associations can be found in bedrock or outcrop in upland contexts, often under blanket bog, and are known as bedrock mortars. They date from the prehistoric period to the early medieval period (5th-12th centuries AD).



Bullring

An arena for bull-baiting, not a tethering ring. These date from the late 17th to the early 19th century AD.



Burial

An interment or deposition of human or animal remains in an isolated context, not associated with a burial ground or graveyard. These can date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Burial (present location)

An interment or deposition of human or animal remains in an isolated context, not associated with a burial ground or graveyard. In this case the burial has been moved from its original location. These can date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Burial ground

An area of ground, set apart for the burial of the dead, not associated with a church. These date from the medieval period (5th - 16th centuries AD) onwards. See also Children's burial ground and Graveyard.



Burial mound

An earthen or earthen and stone mound which contains burials. This classification is applied specifically to burial mounds which are medieval or later in date. For prehistoric examples see barrows.



Burial Vault

Burial Vault - An arched structure, mainly subterranean, that is constructed with stone and/or brick, forming a ceiling or roof over a chamber containing one or more burials often belonging to a single family. Most date from 1600-1800 but some earlier examples have been recorded and the practice can continue to the present.



Burnt mound

A circular or irregularly shaped mound of material consisting of burnt stones, ash and charcoal with no surface evidence of a trough or depression. Levelled examples can appear as a spread containing burnt stones. These can be of any date from the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC) to the early medieval period (5th - 12th century AD). See also Fulacht fia.



Burnt pit

A subcircular or subrectangular pit which has evidence of in situ burning and contains a mixture of charcoal and/or fire-cracked stones. These pits have been also been called fire pits, roasting pits and boiling pits. They are part of a cooking/industrial tradition which continues from the Bronze Age up to the medieval period (c. 2400 BC - 16th century AD).



Burnt spread

An area of charcoal-enriched soil indicative of an activity associated with burning. These may be of any date from prehistory onwards.



Cairn - boundary cairn

A mound constructed primarily of stone located on a boundary. The term cairn is derived from the Irish word 'carn' meaning a heap or pile of stones. These date from the 19th century onwards. See also Cairn - unclassified, Burial cairn, Cairn circle, Radial-stone cairn, Ring-cairn, Clearance cairn, Cairnfield and Wayside Cairn.



Cairn - burial cairn

A mound constructed primarily of stone which covers a burial or burials. The term cairn is derived from the Irish work 'carn' meaning a heap or pile of stones. These can date to any period from prehistory onwards. See also Cairn - unclassified, Radial-stone cairn, Cairn circle, Ring-cairn, Clearance cairn, Boundary cairn, Cairnfield and Wayside Cairn.



Cairn - cairn circle

A low circular mound constructed primarily of stone with a circle of non-contiguous upright stones at its edge or emerging some distance in from it. These are probably part of a Bronze Age ritual tradition (c. 2400-1200 BC). The term cairn is derived from the Irish word 'carn' meaning a heap or pile of stones. See also Cairn - unclassified, Burial cairn, Radial-stone cairn, Ring-cairn, Clearance cairn, Cairnfield, Boundary cairn, Wayside Cairn.



Cairn - clearance cairn

A mound of stones resulting from field clearance for agricultural purposes. These can date to any period from prehistory onwards. The term cairn is derived from the Irish word 'carn' meaning a heap or pile of stones. See also Cairn - unclassified, Burial cairn, Radial-stone cairn, Ring-cairn, Cairn circle, Cairnfield, Boundary cairn and Wayside Cairn.



Cairn - radial-stone cairn

A mound constructed primarily of stone which is delimited by a series of spaced stones set with their long axes aligned towards the centre of the cairn. Their precise function is unknown though through association with stone circles and stone rows they belong to the wider ritual tradition of the middle/late Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC). The term cairn is derived from the Irish word 'carn' meaning a heap or pile of stones. See also Radial-stone enclosure, Cairn - unclassified, Burial cairn, Cairn circle, Ring-cairn, Clearance cairn, Cairnfield, Boundary cairn and Wayside Cairn.



Cairn - ring-cairn

A low, wide ring or bank of stones surrounding an open, roughly circular area which is (or was initially) free of cairn material. The inner and outer faces of the bank may be kerbed. Usually around 13m in external diameter, though this can range from 3m up to 28m. These are part of the Early Bronze Age burial tradition (c. 2400-1200 BC). The term cairn is derived from the Irish word 'carn' meaning a heap or pile of stones. See also Cairn - unclassifed, Burial cairn, Radial-stone cairn, Cairn circle, Clearance cairn, Cairnfield, Boundary cairn and Wayside cairn.



Cairn - unclassified

A mound constructed primarily of stone which cannot be classified as a specific cairn type. These can date to any period from prehistory onwards. The term cairn is derived from the Irish word 'carn' meaning a heap or pile of stones. See also Burial-cairn, Radial-stone cairn, Cairn circle, Ring-cairn, Clearance cairn, Cairnfield, Boundary cairn and Wayside cairn.



Cairn - wayside cairn

A mound constructed primarily of stone erected by the side of a road or thoroughfare. They may be the result of folk practices where it was traditional for people in a funeral procession to place a stone on the cairn in memory of the deceased. They probably date from the 17th to the 20th century AD. The term cairn is derived from the Irish word 'carn' meaning a heap or pile of stones. See also Cairn - unclassified, Burial cairn, Cairn circle, Radial-stone cairn, Ring-cairn, Clearance cairn, Cairnfield and Boundary cairn.



Cairnfield

Three or more clearance cairns found in a recognisable cluster. These can date to any period from prehistory onwards. The term cairn is derived from the Irish word 'carn' meaning a heap or pile of stones. See also Clearance cairn, Cairn - unclassified, Burial cairn, Cairn circle, Radial-stone cairn, Ring-cairn, Boundary cairn and Wayside Cairn.



Canal

An artificial navigable waterway built for the purpose of transporting goods and passengers. Though the majority date to the 18th century there is an example in Co. Roscommon of a canal built to transport soldiers in the 12th century.



Castle - Anglo-Norman masonry castle

A masonry castle constructed in Ireland by the Anglo-Normans between the late 12th and the early 14th century AD.



Castle - hall-house

A building, usually two storeys high with a first-floor entrance, which leads to a single undivided chamber/hall open to the roof and extending the length of the building. They date primarily to the 13th and 14th centuries in Ireland, often continuing to be occupied, in a modified form, throughout the medieval period.



Castle - motte

An artificial, steep-sided, earthen mound on or in which is set the principal tower of a castle. Constructed by the Anglo-Normans in the late 12th and early 13th century AD.



Castle - motte and bailey

An early form of castle consisting of a flat-topped, steep-sided, earthen mound supporting a wooden tower, with an associated courtyard or bailey, which is often raised and enclosed by a bank and fosse. Constructed by the Anglo-Normans in the late 12th and early 13th century AD.



Castle - ringwork

An early form of castle consisting of a circular, oval or polygonal area enclosed by an earth and stone bank and outer fosse. Constructed by the Anglo-Normans and Gaelic lords in the 13th century AD.



Castle - ringwork and bailey

An early form of castle consisting of a circular, oval or polygonal area enclosed by an earth and stone bank and outer fosse with an associated courtyard or bailey. Constructed by the Anglo-Normans and Gaelic lords in the 13th century AD.



Castle - tower house

A fortified residence in the form of a tower, usually four or five storeys high, and for the most part slightly more rectangular than square in plan. They were constructed by a lord or landholder and were often partially or completely enclosed by a bawn. The majority date to the 15th and 16th centuries AD.



Castle - unclassified

A castle that cannot be more precisely classified. They can date from the late 12th to the 16th century AD. See also Castle - Anglo-Norman masonry castle; Castle - hall-house; Castle - motte; Castle - motte and bailey; Castle - ringwork; Castle - ringwork and bailey; Castle - tower house.



Cathedral

The principal church of a diocese in which the cathedra or bishop's throne may be found. These date from the 12th to the 19th century AD.



Causeway

A road or pathway raised above the surrounding low, wet or uneven ground. These date from the Iron Age (c. 500 BC - AD 400) onwards.



Causewayed enclosure

A roughly oval area enclosed by one or more concentric fosses with internal banks, both fosse/s and bank/s are not continuous but are broken by numerous gaps (causeways) at frequent but irregular intervals. The diameter is normally in excess of 100m. Possibly ceremonial/ritual in function, these date to the Early Neolithic (c. 4000-3200 BC).



Cave

A natural subterranean feature with evidence of human activity. These have been in use from the prehistoric period onwards.



Cenotaph

A sepulchral monument erected to commemorate a person or persons buried elsewhere. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Ceremonial enclosure

A large, almost perfectly circular enclosed area having a diameter of at least 60m but usually with a diameter of over 100m. They are normally defined by an internal fosse and outer earthen bank, but occasionally the enclosing element may be a stone wall. In multivallate examples, where there is often no internal fosse, the banks are closely spaced and tend to be quite slight relative to the enclosed area. Most examples have associated ritual or burial monuments that are normally found within the interior but may also occur in the vicinity of the monument. These are primarily ceremonial/ritual monuments, and are frequently associated with Royal sites. They date from the later Bronze Age to the Iron Age (c. 1200 BC- AD 400). See also: Henge, Embanked enclosure.



Chapel

A free-standing building which is used for private worship. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Charcoal-making site

An area, often in a woodland clearing, used for the production of pure carbon by the controlled burning of wood and other organic materials. These date from the early medieval period up to the 18th century AD.



Charnel house

A building where the bones of the dead were stored. These date to the 17th century AD.



Children's burial ground

An area of unconsecrated ground for the interment of unbaptised or stillborn children, often known under various Irish names: Cillín, Caldragh, Ceallúnach or Calluragh. The graves were generally marked by simple, low, upright stones or slabs almost invariably without any inscription or other carving. This burial practice may be medieval in origin and continued in Ireland until the 1960s.



Church

A building used for public Christian worship. These can be of any date from c. 500 AD onwards.



Church (present location)

A building used for public Christian worship, which has been moved from its original location. These can be of any date from c. 500 AD onwards.



Churchyard

An area of ground belonging to a church that is not used for burial. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Cist

A rectangular or polygonal structure used for burial purposes, constructed from stone slabs set on edge and covered by one or more horizontal slabs or capstones. Cists may be built on the surface or sunk into the ground or set within a cemetery cairn or cemetery mound. They date to the Bronze/Iron Ages (c. 2400 BC - AD 400).



Cist (present location)

A rectangular or polygonal structure used for burial purposes, constructed from stone slabs set on edge and covered by one or more horizontal slabs or capstones. Cists may be built on the surface or sunk into the ground or set within a cemetery cairn or cemetery mound. In this case the cist has been moved from its original location. They date to the Bronze/Iron Ages (c. 2400 BC - AD 400).



Cistern

A covered tank in which rainwater is stored. These were in use from the early medieval period (5th -12 centuries AD) up to the 17th century.



Clapper bridge

A simple form of stone bridge constructed of slabs laid horizontally on uprights. These can date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 AD) up to the 18th/19th century AD.



Cliff-edge fort

A penannular enclosure which utilises a cliff-edge to form one or more sides as an enclosing element. They date from the Iron Age up to the medieval period (c. 500 BC - 16th century AD).



Clochan

A circular or rectangular structure of drystone-walling with a corbelled roof. Derived from the Irish word 'cloch' meaning stone; 'clochán' means a stone structure. These date to the early medieval period (5th-12th centuries AD).



Coach house

An outbuilding where a horse-drawn carriage is kept. These date to the 18th and 19th centuries AD.



Coffin-resting stone

A stone found on route to a graveyard on which the coffin is rested during transportation. These can date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 AD) onwards.



College

A building where secular clergy attached to a Cathedral or Parish Church resided. These date from the 12th century AD onwards.



Concentric enclosure

A circular area enclosed by two or more concentric earth and/or stone banks with a wide space or berm between the enclosing banks. The space/berm consists of a wide flat area which may have acted as some sort of bailey. Excavated examples suggest an Iron Age date for this monument type (c. 500 BC - AD 400).



Corn stand

A number of mushroom-shaped stones, consisting of an upright with a round capstone on top, arranged in a circle or rectangle and surmounted by a stone or timber platform on which a stack of corn was built. They date from c. 1750 up to c.1950 AD.



Corn store

A large building used for the storage of grain. These date to the 18th and 19th centuries AD.



Country house

The rural residence of the landed gentry. These houses date from the late 17th century to the first half of the 19th century AD.



Courthouse

A building in which a judicial court is held. These date from the 16th century AD onwards.



Courtyard

An uncovered area surrounded or partially surrounded by buildings. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Crane house

A building where a large, metal or wooden structure was used for raising, lowering and moving heavy objects. These date from the 17th to the 20th century AD.



Crannog

An island, partly or wholly artificial, built up by dumping timber, earth and stones onto a lake or river bed, often revetted with timber piles or a palisade. Derived from the Irish word 'crannóg'; the Irish word for tree is 'crann' and 'crannóg' principally means a piece of wood or a structure of wood. These date from the 6th to the 17th century AD.



Creamery

A building or group of buildings used for the making, processing, storing and selling of milk and other dairy products. These date from the 19th century AD onwards.



Cremated remains

A deposit of burnt bone where there is no evidence of its deposition in a pit or cist. Dating from the Bronze Age or Iron Age (c. 2400 BC - AD 400).



Cremation pit

A burial site in which a corpse has been burnt on a pyre above a pit into which the remains of the pyre collapse and the corpse are buried. Occasionally accompanied by burnt grave goods that were placed with the corpse on the pyre. These generally date from the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC).



Cross

A free-standing structure, in the form of a cross (+), symbolising the structure on which Jesus Christ was crucified. See also High cross, Market cross, Tau cross. These can be of any date from c. 400 AD onwards.



Cross - Churchyard cross

A free-standing, late medieval, memorial cross found in a churchyard or graveyard (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD).



Cross - Churchyard cross (present location)

A free-standing, late medieval, memorial cross found in a churchyard or graveyard (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD). In this case the cross has been moved from its original location.



Cross - High cross

A square or rectangular pillar of stone usually with a ringed cross at the top, often decorated with low relief carvings. They are set in a base of cubic or pyramid form, sometimes fashioned in a series of steps. The height (1.5-6m) may be increased by a capstone. They were erected in the precincts of early medieval churches and date from the 8th to the 12th century AD.



Cross - High cross (present location)

A square or rectangular pillar of stone usually with a ringed cross at the top, often decorated with low relief carvings. They are set in a base of cubic or pyramid form, sometimes fashioned in a series of steps. The height (3-6m) may be increased by a capstone. They were erected in the precincts of early medieval churches. In this case the high cross has been moved from its original location. They date from the 8th to the 12th century AD.



Cross - Market cross

A cross found in a market place. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) up to the 19th century.



Cross - Market cross (present location)

A cross found in a market place. In this case the market cross has been moved from its original location. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) up to the 19th century.



Cross - Tau cross

A cross in the form of a T. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Cross - Tau Cross (present location)

A cross in the form of a T. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Cross - Wayside cross

A memorial cross erected by the side of a road or thoroughfare. These date from the 12th to the 17th century AD.



Cross - Wayside cross (present location)

A memorial cross erected by the side of a road or thoroughfare. In this case the wayside cross has been moved from its original location. These date from the 12th to the 17th century AD.



Cross (present location)

A free-standing structure, in the form of a cross (+), symbolising the structure on which Jesus Christ was crucified. In this case the cross has been moved from its original location. See also High cross, Market cross, Tau cross. These can be of any date from c. 400 AD onwards.



Cross-inscribed pillar

A slender, free-standing stone, square or roughly rectangular in section, usually over 1m high, on the surface of which a cross has been inscribed or carved in relief. Found in ecclesiastical contexts or associated with holy wells and dated to the early medieval period (c. 5th-12th centuries AD).



Cross-inscribed pillar (present location)

A slender, free-standing stone, square or roughly rectangular in section, usually over 1m high, on the surface of which a cross has been inscribed or carved in relief. Found in ecclesiastical contexts or associated with holy wells. In this case the cross-inscribed pillar has been moved from its original location. These date to the early medieval period (c. 5th-12th centuries AD).



Cross-inscribed stone

A stone with a cross carved into its surface. These can be of any date from c. 400 AD onwards.



Cross-inscribed stone (present location)

A stone with a cross carved into its surface which has been moved from its original location. These can be of any date from c. 400 AD onwards.



Cross-slab

A slab of stone, either standing or recumbent, inscribed with a cross and generally used as a grave-marker or memorial. Where a slab has an ogham inscription this is classified as 'Ogham stone'. This term is applied only to slabs dating to pre-1200 AD.



Cross-slab (present location)

A slab of stone, either standing or recumbent, inscribed with a cross and generally used as a grave-marker or memorial. In this case the cross-slab has been moved from its original location. Where a slab has an ogham inscription this is classified as 'Ogham stone'. This term is applied only to slabs dating to pre-1200 AD.



Crucifixion plaque

A worked stone bearing a carved representation of the crucifixion. These date from the late medieval period to the 17th century (c. 1400-1700 AD) and are found adorning public buildings of this period such as almshouses.



Cultivation ridges

One or more linear mounds of earth formed by tilling the soil using a plough or spade, in advance of planting a crop. Ridges formed by a spade are also known as 'lazy beds' which date from the 18th century AD onwards.



Cupmarked stone

A stone or rock outcrop, found in isolation, bearing one or more, small roughly hemispherical depressions, generally created by chipping or pecking. These date to the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age (c. 2500 - 1800 BC).



Cupmarked stone (present location)

A stone or rock outcrop, found in isolation, bearing one or more, small roughly hemispherical depressions, generally created by chipping or pecking. In this case the cupmarked stone has been moved from its original location. These date to the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age (c. 2500 - 1800 BC).



Cursing stone

A stone, usually round, sometimes placed in the hollow of a bullaun stone and turned over or anti-clockwise while a curse is uttered against an offending person. These date from the early medieval period (5th-12th centuries AD) onwards.



Cursing stone (present location)

A stone, usually round, sometimes placed in the hollow of a bullaun stone and turned over or anti-clockwise while a curse is uttered against an offending person. In this case the cursing stone has been moved from its original location. These date from the early medieval period (5th-12th centuries AD) onwards.



Cursus

A long, narrow, rectangular earthwork, sometimes with squared or rounded ends, that is defined by a bank and external fosse. They are of Neolithic date (c. 4000-2400 BC) and are presumed to be ceremonial in function.



Custom house

An office, particularly at a seaport, at which customs are collected. These date to the 18th and 19th centuries AD.



Dam

A barrier of stone or earth etc., built across a river to create a reservoir of water for domestic and/or industrial usage. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Decorated stone

A stone which has been incised or carved with decorative motifs. See also Rock art, Rock scribing, Passage tomb art. These may date from the Neolithic (c. 4000 BC) up to the 19th century AD.



Decorated stone (present location)

A stone which has been incised or carved with decorative motifs. In this case the decorated stone has been moved from its original location. See also Rock art, Rock scribing, Passage tomb art. These may date from the Neolithic (c. 4000 BC) up to the 19th century AD.



Decoy pond

A pond or pool with arm-like projections covered with nets into which wild birds are lured and then caught. Feeder channels allow the pool or pond to fill from a water source. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Deer park

A large park for keeping deer. These date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD) up to the 19th century.



Defensive redoubt

A small enclosed work, without bastions or flank defence, either in the form of an earthen fieldwork, a permanent fortification or an outwork, generally triangular in form. They date to the later 17th and 18th centuries AD.



Designed landscape - avenue

A designed approach to a large country residence delineated by parallel lines of banks or ditches or simply by trees. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Designed landscape - belvedere

A turret, tower or lookout occupying a prominent position to provide a view; either a separate building or part of a villa. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Designed landscape - folly

A structure that demonstrates eccentricity or excess rather than practical purpose. They can take many forms - sham castles and ruins, towers, hermit's cells or grottoes. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Designed landscape - formal garden

A garden of regular, linear or geometrical design, often associated with the traditional Italian, French and Dutch styles. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Designed landscape - ornamental canal

An artificial stretch of water, usually rectangular in shape, used decoratively, particularly in formal gardens. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Designed landscape - ornamental lake

An artificial lake, often made by damming a stream. A common feature of landscape parks. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Designed landscape - summer house

A building in a garden or park designed to provide a shady retreat from the heat of the sun. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Designed landscape - tea house

A refreshment house in a public park or country house garden. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Designed landscape - tree-ring

A wall, bank, fosse or an earthwork platform, or any combination of these, usually circular or oval in plan, used to define or enclose a cluster of ornamental trees. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Designed landscape feature

A man-made feature that is laid out to produce the effect of natural scenery, or other features, usually within demesnes and associated with a country house. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD. See also Designed landscape - ornamental lake, Designed landscape - tree-ring, Designed landscape - folly, Designed landscape - belvedere, Designed landscape - teahouse and Designed landscape - summer house.



Distillery

An establishment or works where the distilling of spirits is carried out. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Dovecote

A circular or square house where doves/pigeons were kept. They have internal niches for roosting and breeding, a door at ground level for human access and an opening in the roof or gable for pigeon access. They date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) and continued in use until c.1900.



Earthwork

An anomalous earthen structure, usually raised and occurring in a variety of shapes and sizes, that on field inspection was found to possess no diagnostic features which would allow classification within another monument category. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Ecclesiastical enclosure

A large oval or roughly circular area, usually over 50m in diameter, defined by a bank/banks and external fosse/fosses or drystone wall/walls, enclosing an early medieval church or monastery and its associated areas of domestic and industrial activity. These date to the early medieval period (5th-12th centuries AD).



Ecclesiastical residence

A building specifically built to house an ecclesiastic, whether a bishop, dean, rector, vicar or priest. These date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Ecclesiastical site

A location where a religious foundation existed but where there is insufficient evidence to allow for a more precise classification. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) up to the 18th century.



Electricity generating station

A building or set of buildings and structures where electricity is generated. These date from the 19th century AD onwards.



Embanked enclosure

A circular or oval enclosed area ranging in dimension from 50m to over 100m and in rare cases up to 200m. It is defined by a broad earthen bank (Wth 9m plus) with a single entrance and the area enclosed appears to be sunken or hollowed out. They are ceremonial/ritual monuments, dating to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age (c. 2800-1700 BC), and may be a variant of the henge. See also: Henge, Ceremonial enclosure.



Enclosure

An area defined by an enclosing element (e.g. bank, wall, fosse, scarp), or indicated as such cartographically, and occurring in a variety of shapes and sizes, possessing no diagnostic features which would allow classification within another monument category. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards. Enclosures with a diameter greater than 70m should be classed as Large Enclosure.



Enclosure - large enclosure

An enclosed area over 70m in diameter defined by an earthen bank or stone wall, sometimes with an external fosse. They display no preferred siting criteria, and those on hilltops can be classified as hilltop enclosures. They can date to any period from prehistory to the late medieval period (i.e. 4000 BC - 1700 AD). For other large enclosures see also: Hillfort, Hilltop enclosure, Causewayed enclosure, Ceremonial enclosure, and Embanked enclosure.



Excavation - miscellaneous

A feature or group of features of indeterminate function revealed by excavation that cannot be assigned to a particular monument class. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Exhibitionist figure

A carving in stone of a male figure posed in a contorted position, often displaying genitalia, but some may be beard or tongue-pullers. They are located on Romanesque and later medieval churches, and may have functioned by alerting the faithful to the dangers of the sin of lust. For female exhibitionist figures see Sheela-na-gig. These date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Exhibitionist figure (present location)

A carving in stone of a male figure posed in a contorted position, often displaying genitalia, but some may be beard or tongue-pullers. They are located on Romanesque and later medieval churches, and may have functioned by alerting the faithful to the dangers of the sin of lust. In this case the exhibitionist figure has been moved from its original location. For female exhibitionist figures see Sheela-na-gig. These date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Factory

A building or complex housing powered machinery for manufacturing purposes. These date from the 19th century AD onwards.



Fever hospital

An isolation hospital for infectious diseases and leprosy, sometimes known as a Pest House; commonly situated on the edge of a town. These date to the 19th and 20th centuries AD.



Field boundary

A continuous linear or curving bank, wall or drain which defines the limits of a field. These date to any period from the Neolithic (c. 4000-2400 BC) onwards.



Field system

A group or complex of fields which appear to form a coherent whole. These date to any period from the Neolithic (c. 4000-2400 BC) onwards.



Fish palace

Coastal curing stations for processing (smoking, pickling and pressing) herring. Traditionally known as 'pallices'. They date to the 17th and 18th centuries AD.



Fish-pond

A pond used for the breeding, rearing, sorting and storing of fish. These date to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Flat cemetery

Three or more individual burials, in pits or cists, related to one another by rite, grave goods or simply by their close proximity to one another. These are not covered by a mound and are dated to the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC).



Font

A vessel, usually made of stone, over which baptisms were held. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Font (present location)

A vessel, usually made of stone, over which baptisms were held. In this case the font has been moved from its original location. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Ford

A shallow place in a river or other stretch of water, which has been augmented by stone and/or timber, where people, animals and vehicles may cross. These may date to any period.



Forge

A building or site where bloom iron or cast-iron is forged into wrought iron. These date from the 17th to the early 20th century AD.



Fortification

A fortress or military works where the evidence does not permit more precise classification. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Four poster

An arrangement of four upright stones standing at the corners of an irregular quadrilateral. The stones are usually graded in height with the tallest stone at either the south-west or north-east corner. Their closest counterparts are to be found in northern England and Scotland. These monuments are closely related to stone circles in date and function though they are much less numerous. These are dated to the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC).



Fulacht fia

A horseshoe-shaped or kidney-shaped mound consisting of fire-cracked stone and charcoal-enriched soil built up around a sunken trough located near or adjacent to a water supply, such as a stream or spring, or in wet marshy areas. The first recorded use of the Irish term 'fulacht fiadh/fia' (cooking pit of the deer or of the wild) as relating to ancient cooking sites was in the 17th century. These are generally interpreted to have been associated with cooking and date primarily to the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC). See also Burnt Mound.



Furnace

A chamber in which minerals, metals, etc., are subjected to continuous intense heat. These can date from the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC) to the 17th century AD.



Gallows

A structure used for execution by hanging. Usually comprises two uprights and a cross-piece, from which the offender is suspended by the neck. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Gasworks

An industrial complex concerned with the manufacture of gas for domestic use. These date to the 19th and 20th centuries AD.



Gate lodge

A dwelling located at the entrance or gates to an estate or park, etc. These date from the late 17th to the early 20th century AD.



Gatehouse

A gateway comprising one or more chambers over the entrance arch and often with flanking towers housing stairs and additional rooms. These date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Gateway

A stone or brick structure, consisting of gate piers or an archway, which supports a gate. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Gateway (present location)

A stone or brick structure, consisting of gate piers or an archway, which supports a gate. In this case the gateway has been moved from its original location. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Gibbet

An upright post with a projecting arm from which the body of an executed criminal was hung in chains. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Glass works

A place where all the processes for the production of glass and objects made from glass are carried out. These date from the late 16th century AD onwards.



Glasshouse

A building made chiefly of glass in which plants and fruit are grown. These date from the 18th century AD onwards.



Graveslab

A stone designed to be recumbent and marking a grave, AD 1200-1700 in date.



Graveslab (present location)

A stone designed to be recumbent and marking a grave, AD 1200-1700 in date. In this case the graveslab has been moved from its original location.



Graveyard

The burial area around a church. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries) onwards.



Guildhall

The hall of a crafts, trade or merchants guild. These date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD) to the 19th century.



Habitation site

A concentration of archaeological features which are indicative of habitation, the remains being insufficient to allow a more specific classification. These may be of any date up to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Headstone

An upright stone placed over the head of a grave. These date from 17th century AD onwards.



Headstone (present location)

An upright stone placed over the head of a grave. In this case the headstone has been moved from its original location. These date from 17th century AD onwards.



Hearth

A place where a fire is made but where there is insufficient evidence to indicate habitation. These may date to any period from prehistory (c. 8000 BC - AD 400) to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Henge

A large, enclosed, circular or oval area usually over 70m in diameter which is defined by an earthen bank and a (usually internal) shallow but broad fosse, with one or two (rarely more) original entrances. They can contain a variety of internal features including timber or stone circles. They are ceremonial/ritual monuments and date to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age (c. 2800-1700 BC). See also: Ceremonial enclosure, Embanked enclosure.



Hermitage

A secluded place, either a man-made structure or a natural feature, such as a cave, where a hermit lived. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Hillfort

A large enclosed area that is more than 1 hectare in size (diam. c. 110m), and usually encompassing between 2 and 22 hectares (diam. exceeding c. 160m). Hillforts are always located in high upland terrain – on top of, or on the spur or ridge of a hill or mountain, or on hills which, if not high, are very prominent locally. They are defined by an earthen or earth and stone bank/banks or a wall/walls and external fosse/fosses and can be circular, oval or more irregularly shaped in plan if following the contours of a hilltop. In the case of bivallate or multivallate examples, the banks are often widely spaced. They may have been important ceremonial tribal centres and/or permanent or temporary settlements. Some examples date from the Early Neolithic (c. 3600 BC), others from the Middle to Late Bronze Age (c. 1400-500 BC) with examples of reoccupation in the later Iron Age (c. 100-400 AD). See also: Hilltop enclosure, Enclosure -large enclosure, Causewayed enclosure.



Hilltop enclosure

An enclosed area less than 2 hectare in size (diam. less than c. 160m) located in upland terrain – on ridges or plateaux, on the lower slopes of hills or mountains, and sometimes encompassing the domed summit of a hill. They are univallate, defined by an earthen bank or wall, sometimes with an external fosse. They are generally considerably larger than ringforts, and may date to any period from prehistory to the late medieval period (i.e. 4000 BC - 1700 AD). See also: Hillfort, Enclosure – Large enclosure, Causewayed enclosure.



Historic town

A settlement of pre-AD 1700 date that occupied a central position in the communications network, functioned as a market centre and had an organised layout of streets with a significant density of houses and associated land plots. In addition, examples of one of the following monument classes should be present: town defences; castle/tower house; house (which functioned as a manor house); parish church/cathedral; religious house(s); administrative institution (e.g. town hall, market-house); judicial institution (e.g. courthouse, prison); monuments indicating specialised technological production (e.g. mill, kiln, tannery, ironworking site); bridge; hospital; school; quays. Where only documentary evidence survives to suggest a town was present then the term 'Historic town possible' applies.



Holed stone

An upright or originally upright stone featuring a hole. These may be Iron Age (c. 500 BC - AD 400) or medieval (5th-16th centuries AD) in date.



Holed stone (present location)

An upright or originally upright stone featuring a hole. In this case the holed stone has been moved from its original location. These may be Iron Age (c. 500 BC - AD 400) or medieval (5th-16th centuries AD) in date.



Hospital

A building for the care of the sick, aged, infirm and poor. These day from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



House - 16th century

A building for human habitation which dates to the 16th century AD and which is not a tower house or a fortified house.



House - 16th/17th century

A building for human habitation which dates to the 16th/early 17th century AD and which is not a tower house or a fortified house.



House - 17th century

A building for human habitation which dates to the 17th century AD and which is not a tower house or a fortified house.



House - 17th/18th century

A building for human habitation which dates to the late 17th or early 18th century AD.



House - 18th century

A building for human habitation which dates to the 18th century and which is not classifiable as either a country house or a vernacular house.



House - 18th/19th century

A building for human habitation which dates to the 18th/19th century and which is not classifiable as either a country house or a vernacular house.



House - 19th century

A building for human habitation which dates to the 19th century and which is not classifiable as either a country house or a vernacular house.



House - 20th century

A building for human habitation which dates to the 20th century and which is not classifiable as either a country house or a vernacular house.



House - Bronze Age

A building for human habitation which dates to the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC).



House - early medieval

A building for human habitation which dates from the 5th to the 12th century AD.



House - fortified house

A stone house laid out on an elongated plan as opposed to the vertical arrangement of a tower house. Internal fixtures, such as stairs, floors and partitions are usually wooden. Fortified houses also possess, in addition to the above, one or more of the following features: a defended bawn; gun loops; bartizans; machicolations; corner towers or wings designed to allow flanking fire. These houses date to the period c. 1580 - c. 1650 AD either on historical or stylistic grounds.



House - indeterminate date

A building for human habitation. This classification is used, in the context of this database, when the date of the house is indeterminable.



House - Iron Age

A building for human habitation which dates to the Iron Age (c. 500 BC - AD 400).



House - medieval

A building for human habitation which is broadly dated to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



House - Neolithic

A building for human habitation which dates to the Neolithic period (c. 4000-2400 BC).



House - prehistoric

A building for human habitation which is broadly dated to the prehistoric period (up to c. AD 400).



House - vernacular house

A house which is non-formal, built of local materials using local skills and craftsmen within the parameters of their own local building tradition. In Ireland the majority are single storey, rectangular in plan and only one room deep, with the main hearth/kitchen forming the core of the house for domestic and social activities. These date from the 17th to the early 20th century AD.



House - Viking/Hiberno-Norse

A building for human habitation which dates from the 9th to the early 12th century AD.



Hut site

A structure, usually discernible as a low, stone foundation or earthen bank enclosing a circular, oval or subrectangular area, generally less then 5m in maximum dimension. The remains are generally too insubstantial to classify as a house but the majority probably functioned as dwellings. These may date to any period from prehistory (c. 8000 BC - AD 400) to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Hydro

A hotel or clinic providing hydropathic treatment. These date to the 19th and 20th centuries AD.



Icehouse

A structure, partly underground, for the preservation of ice. These date from the 17th to the 19th century AD.



Inauguration site

A place where Gaelic royal inauguration ceremonies were held, which includes hilltop enclosures, earthen mounds, church sites, ringforts and, less frequently, natural locations. All are situated on low-lying hills with a good prospect (30-122m OD), generally overlooking the kingdom or lordship of the king-elect. These date from the Iron Age (c. 500 BC - AD 400) to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Inauguration stone

A stone which formed part of the inauguration rite of a Gaelic king. These date from the Iron Age (c. 500 BC - AD 400) to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Inauguration stone (present location)

A stone which formed part of the inauguration rite of a Gaelic king. In this case the inauguration stone has been moved from its original location. These date from the Iron Age (c. 500 BC - AD 400) to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Industrial chimney

A free-standing chimney, its function being to vent smoke or steam, used on an industrial or commercial site. This date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Industrial site

An area or defined space believed to have been used for trades and/or manufacturing activity. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Inn

A public house for the lodging and entertainment of travellers, etc. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Inscribed slab

A slab of stone, either standing or recumbent, inscribed with lettering, used as a grave-marker or memorial. Applied only to slabs dating to pre-1200 AD. If a slab with lettering also bears an inscribed cross then use cross-slab.



Inscribed slab (present location)

A slab of stone, either standing or recumbent, inscribed with lettering, used as a grave-marker or memorial. Applied only to slabs dating to pre-1200 AD. If a slab with lettering also bears an inscribed cross then use cross-slab. In this case the inscribed slab has been moved from its original location.



Inscribed stone

A stone from an isolated context which has been inscribed with symbols and/or letters and/or date. If the stone bears a coat of arms use Armorial plaque, if the stone is carved with an inscription, personal initials or other letters commemorating a person or event use Memorial stone. These may date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Inscribed stone (present location)

A stone from an isolated context which has been inscribed with symbols and/or letters and/or date. If the stone bears a coat of arms use Armorial plaque, if the stone is carved with an inscription, personal initials or other letters commemorating a person or event use Memorial stone. In this case the inscribed stone has been moved from its original location. These may date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Kerb circle

A series of low orthostats set with their long axes on the circumference of a circular enclosed space of diameter c. 3-22m. The interior is usually devoid of any structure or other remains. They are associated with Bronze Age ritual monuments (c. 2400-500 BC).



Kiln

A furnace or oven for burning, baking or drying. If more precise classification is known use one of the following: Kiln - brick; Kiln - corn-drying; Kiln - kelp drying; Kiln - lime; Kiln - malting; Kiln - pottery; Kiln - tile. These may date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Kiln - brick

A structure used for the firing of bricks. These date from the late 16th century AD onwards.



Kiln - corn-drying

A structure used for drying corn before it is ground. These are also known as cereal-drying kilns. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Kiln - kelp drying

A structure used for drying kelp. These date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Kiln - lime

A structure in which lime is made by calcining limestone. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Kiln - malting

A structure with a pyramid roof and capped vent in which barley is dried. Found in association with a malt house. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Kiln - pottery

A structure, composed of oven and hovel, used for the firing of pottery ware. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Kiln - tile

A structure in which pottery tiles were baked. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Latrine

A small building housing a lavatory. These date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Leacht

A feature found on Early Christian ecclesiastical sites (5th-9th centuries AD). The name ‘leacht’ is derived from the Irish meaning a grave, cairn or sepulchral monument. It usually consists of a low, often rectangular, drystone-faced cairn. The leacht (plural leachta) may have marked a special grave, such as that of the site’s founder saint, and may have served as a focal point for outdoor services. Crosses, cross-slabs or cross-inscribed pillars are sometimes placed on the leachta or are found in association and they are used as penitential stations.



Leacht cuimhne

A type of cenotaph (see Cenotaph), the name is derived from the Irish 'leacht' meaning a grave, cairn or sepulchral monument and 'cuimhne' meaning a commemoration or a memorial. They consist of tall, rectangular or square stone piers, usually of drystone construction, frequently surmounted by simple crosses. Set into the piers are stone plaques commemorating, in English, departed relatives. They date from the 1640s up to the 1890s AD.



Leper hospital

A medieval hospital for lepers, often found in association with a church or chapel. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Library

A building, room or suite of rooms where books, or other materials, are classified by subject and stored for use by the library's members. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Lighthouse

A conspicuous tower or structure built to contain a powerful light or lights at the top. These were usually erected at an important or dangerous point on or near the seacoast to warn and guide mariners. These date from the 12th century AD onwards. See also beacon.



Linear earthwork

A substantial bank and fosse, usually forming a major boundary between two adjacent landholdings. Most date from the late Bronze Age and Iron Age (c. 1200 BC - AD 500).



Linkardstown burial

A circular mound covering a central large cist or chamber which contains an inhumed burial/burials, of usually one or two males, with distinctive decorated pottery. Radiocarbon dates for these burials centre around 3500 BC.



Lock

A section of the water channel on a canal or river shut off above and below by lock gates provided with sluices to let the water out and in, thus raising or lowering boats from one level to another. These date from the 18th and 19th centuries AD.



Magazine

A building in which a supply of arms, ammunition and provisions for an army is stored. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Maltings

A building or complex of buildings where malt is made. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Mansion house

The residence of a mayor or lord mayor. These date from the 18th century AD onwards.



Market-house

A market building incorporating other function rooms, e.g. theatres, courtrooms, schoolrooms. In Ireland market-houses are sometimes colloquially referred to as tholsels. These date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Martello tower

A coastal defensive tower, usually circular with a first-floor entrance, erected as part of the anti-invasion defences during the Napoleonic Wars (1804-1812 AD).



Mass-house

A secular building used to celebrate Mass during Penal times (1690s to 1750s AD).



Mass-rock

A rock or earthfast boulder used as an altar or a stone-built altar used when Mass was being celebrated during Penal times (1690s to 1750s AD), though there are some examples which appear to have been used during the Cromwellian Period (1650s AD). Some of these rocks/boulders may bear an inscribed cross. See also Penal Mass station.



Mass-rock (present location)

A rock or earthfast boulder used as an altar or a stone-built altar used when Mass was being celebrated during Penal times (1690s to 1750s AD), though there are some examples which appear to have been used during the Cromwellian Period (1650s AD). Some of these rocks/boulders may bear an inscribed cross. In this case the mass-rock has been moved from its original location. See also Penal Mass station.



Mausoleum

A roofed structure used for the burial of one person or a family, sometimes with a separate vault beneath. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Maypole

A high wooden pole, painted with spiral stripes of different colours and decked with flowers, erected on an open space, often the village green, for merrymakers to dance around on May Day. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) to the 17th century AD.



Meeting-house

A building used for services by a nonconformist protestant sect, especially by Quakers and Presbyterians. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Megalithic structure

A construction of large stones of 'megalithic' proportions which, though comparable in certain respects with megalithic tombs, cannot be classified as any other known archaeological monument type on present evidence. These may date from the prehistoric period onwards.



Megalithic structure (present location)

A construction of large stones of a 'megalithic' nature which, though comparable in certain respects with megalithic tombs, cannot be classified as any other known archaeological monument type on present evidence. In this case the megalithic structure has been moved from its original location. These may date from the prehistoric period onwards.



Megalithic tomb - court tomb

A long rectangular or trapezoidal cairn, at the broader end of which is usually an unroofed forecourt area which gave access to the roofed burial gallery, placed axially within the cairn and divided into two to four chambers. The cairn was retained by a kerb of upright stones or drystone-walling. Evidence indicates that the galleries were used for repeated burial, mostly cremations, over a long period of time - between 4,000 and 3,500 BC.



Megalithic tomb - passage tomb

A round mound, usually surrounded by a kerb of large stones, enclosing a burial chamber, usually with a corbelled roof, which is entered by a passage, usually lintelled. Many tombs have side and end recesses opening off a central chamber, resulting in a cruciform plan. Cremation was the predominant burial rite in passage tombs which primarily date from 3300 to 2900 BC though some simpler tombs in Carrowmore, Co. Sligo have produced radiocarbon dates suggesting use even earlier in the Neolithic, c. 4000 BC.



Megalithic tomb - portal tomb

A single, short chamber formed by two tall portal-stones, two sidestones and a backstone. Sometimes a stone between the portals closes the entry. The chamber is covered by a roofstone, often of enormous size, which slopes down from the front towards the rear. Cremation was the preferred burial rite and these date to the Neolithic from 3800 to 3200 BC.



Megalithic tomb - unclassified

This term is used for megalithic tombs that cannot be classified as a court tomb, portal tomb, passage tomb or wedge tomb. These may date from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age (c. 4000 - c. 500 BC).



Megalithic tomb - wedge tomb

A long burial gallery, sometimes with an antechamber or small closed end-chamber. They are generally broader and higher at the front, which invariably faces in a westerly direction. They are roofed by slabs laid directly on the side-walls which often have one or more rows of outer- walling. Evidence from the small number of excavated examples suggests that they were being built between 2,500 and 2,000 BC representing the last phase of megalithic tomb building.



Megalithic tomb - wedge tomb (present location)

A long burial gallery, sometimes with an antechamber or small closed end-chamber. They are generally broader and higher at the front, which invariably faces in a westerly direction. They are roofed by slabs laid directly on the side-walls which often have one or more rows of outer- walling. In this case the wedge tomb has been moved from its original location. Evidence from the small number of excavated examples suggests that they were being built between 2,500 and 2,000 BC representing the last phase of megalithic tomb building.



Memorial stone

A stone on which is carved an inscription, a person's initials or other letters commemorating a person or event. If accompanied by a coat of arms it is classified as an ‘armorial plaque’. This term is not used for memorials of the dead found in churches, for which see ‘Wall monument’. These date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD) onwards



Memorial stone (present location)

A stone on which is carved an inscription, a person's initials or other letters commemorating a person or event. If accompanied by a coat of arms it is classified as an ‘armorial plaque’. This term is not used for memorials of the dead found in churches, for which see ‘Wall monument’. In this case the memorial stone has been moved from its original location. These date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Metalworking site

A place where metal is produced. These may date from the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC) onwards.



Midden

A refuse heap sometimes surviving as a layer or spread. These may be of any date from prehistory (c. 8000 BC - AD c. 400) up to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Milestone

A stone set up on a road or path to mark the distance in miles from or to a place. These date from the 17th to the 20th century AD.



Milestone (present location)

A stone set up on a road or path to mark the distance in miles from or to a place. In this case the milestone has been moved from its original location. These date from the 17th to the 20th century AD.



Military camp

A place where a body of troops is temporarily or permanently lodged. These may date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Mill - bleaching

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, where the processing of flax into linen was undertaken. These date from the 18th and 19th centuries AD. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Mill - carding

A mill, , including where present the millrace and millpond, employing up to 10 men, working on hand-operated carding engines and hand jennies, spinning yarn for handloom weavers. These date from the 18th to the 20th century AD. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Mill - cloth

Any mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, used for the manufacture of textiles. These date from the 18th to the 20th century AD. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Mill - corn

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, for grinding corn. These date from the 18th to the 20th century AD. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Mill - cotton

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, for spinning, and sometimes weaving, cotton yarn. These date from the 18th to the 20th century AD. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Mill - flax

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, where flax is processed to make linen, thread and yarn. These date to the 18th and 19th centuries AD. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Mill - fulling

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, for beating and cleaning cloth, using soap or fullers earth. These date from the 17th to the 20th century AD. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Mill - gunpowder

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, used for the manufacture of gunpowder. These date to the 18th and 19th centuries AD. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Mill - paper

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, where paper is made. These date from the 19th century AD onwards. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Mill - sawmill

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, in which logs are converted to timber by running them through a series of saws. These date from the 18th century AD onwards. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Mill - spade mill

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, where spades were manufactured. These date the 19th and 20th centuries AD. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Mill - threshing

A circular walk (diameter 3-6m) where a horse, attached to a horse-engine, provides rotary power transferred by means of gears and a shaft to a threshing machine (usually housed in an adjoining barn). These date from the 18th to the 20th century AD. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Mill - unclassified

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, where corn is ground or where raw material is processed. This classification is used, in the context of this database, when it is unclear whether the mill in question is a water mill or a windmill. These may date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Mill - woollen

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, where short wool was spun into woollen yarn to produce cloth. In this database only mills which are post-1700 AD in date are classified by function.



Milling complex

A series of post-1700 AD structures associated with milling, including any of the following: mill, millpond, millrace, engine house, industrial chimney, administrative buildings and workers' factory.



Millstone quarry

A place where stone was extracted for the manufacture of millstones. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Mine

An excavation made in the earth or tunnelled into rock for the purpose of extracting metallic ores, coal, salt, or precious stones, etc. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Mine - barytes

A place where barytes (barium sulphate) is mined. These date from the 19th century AD onwards.



Mine - copper

A mine where copper ore is extracted. These date from the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC) onwards.



Mine - lead

A mine where ore is extracted for making into lead. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Mine engine house

A structure used to house a steam engine which powered the pumps extracting water from the mines, operated the lifts carrying men and materials to and from the mineshafts and crushed minerals. Typically tall rectangular buildings with an extra thick 'bob-wall' on which the rocking beam was carried. 'Cornish' engine houses, so called as they had modifications developed by Cornish mining engineers, are a common type in Ireland. These date the 19th and 20th centuries AD.



Miner's settlement

A grouping, usually a street, of mine-workers' houses. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Mining complex

A series of structures associated with mining, including any of the following: mines, mineshafts, engine houses, industrial chimneys, spoil heaps, miner's houses and administrative buildings. These date from the 18th century AD onwards.



Mining structure

A building, shaft or other structure associated with an extraction industry. See also Industrial himney. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Moated site

A square, rectangular or occasionally circular area, sometimes raised above the ground, enclosed by a wide, often water-filled, fosse, with or without an outer bank and with a wide causewayed entrance. They date to the late 13th/early 14th centuries and were primarily fortified residences/farmsteads of Anglo-Norman settlers though they were also built by Gaelic lords.



Monumental structure

A structure erected to commemorate a person or event. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Mound

An artificial elevation of earth or earth and stone of unknown date and function which cannot be classified as any other known archaeological monument type on present evidence.



Naust

An artificial shelter used for the repair or storage of boats. Nausts are of Scandinavian origin and are common throughout Viking Scotland. They date to the Viking period (9th-12th centuries AD).



Ogham stone

Ogham stones can be upright monoliths or recumbent slabs, onto which ogham script has been incised. Ogham script consists of groups of 1-5 parallel lines and notches cut along the side or across the edge of a stone to represent the sounds of the Irish language. It is usually read up the left angle. The inscription gives a person's name (usually male) and immediate antecedent/s or tribal ancestor. The stones may have functioned as memorials, grave markers or territorial markers and date from the late 4th to the early 8th century AD.



Ogham stone (present location)

Ogham stones can be upright monoliths or recumbent slabs, onto which ogham script has been incised. Ogham script consists of groups of 1-5 parallel lines and notches cut along the side or across the edge of a stone to represent the sounds of the Irish language. It is usually read up the left angle. The inscription gives a person's name (usually male) and immediate antecedent/s or tribal ancestor. The stones may have functioned as memorials, grave markers or territorial markers. In this case the ogham stone has been moved from its original location. They date from the late 4th to the early 8th century AD.



Orangery

A gallery or building in a garden, usually south-facing, used for the growing of oranges and other fruit. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Outwork

A minor fortification built outside the principal fortification limits of a medieval castle or bastion fort, detached or semi-detached. These date from the 13th - 17th century.



Park

An enclosed piece of land, generally large in area, used for the cultivation of trees, for grazing sheep and cattle or for recreation. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Passage tomb art

Carved designs similar to those found on the orthostats and roofstones of passage tombs. The motifs are mostly geometric in form, comprising circles, spirals, lozenges, zigzags, triangles, etc. In this database the term is only applied where an isolated stone occurs with this art. This dates to the Neolithic period (c. 4000-2400 BC).



Passage tomb art (present location)

Carved designs similar to those found on the orthostats and roofstones of passage tombs. The motifs are mostly geometric in form, comprising circles, spirals, lozenges, zigzags, triangles, etc. In this database the term is only applied where an isolated stone occurs with this art. This dates to the Neolithic period (c. 4000-2400 BC).



Penal Mass station

A place where Mass was celebrated during Penal times from the 1690s to the 1750s AD.



Penitential station

A stone cairn, mound or small monolith which served as a station where specific prayers were recited. Often found in association with holy wells or ecclesiastical sites from the early medieval period (5th - 12th centuries AD).



Pier/Jetty

A structure, extending out into the water, built of iron, wood or stone, for docking or accessing ships or boats. They may also serve to protect a harbour, influence the current or tide and are sometimes used as promenades. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Pillar stone

An uninscribed upright stone, only found in ecclesiastical contexts. These date from the medieval period (c. 400 - c. 1400 AD).



Pillar stone (present location)

An uninscribed upright stone, only found in ecclesiastical contexts. In this case the pillar stone has been moved from its original location. These date from the medieval period (c. 400 - c. 1400 AD).



Pill-box

An often squat building with thick loopholed walls and a flat roof, designed to accommodate a variety of weapons; usually strategically positioned to cover a vulnerable point in a defensive system. These date from the 18th to the 20th century AD.



Pillory

An instrument of punishment consisting of a frame, usually wooden, with holes through which the head and hands of a standing offender were restrained. In Ireland, these date from the 13th century up to the 18th century.



Pit

A circular or sub-circular cropmark/maculae or soil-mark, usually identified from aerial photography, which appears to be the visible evidence of a filled-in excavated hole or cavity in the ground. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Pit alignment

A single line, or pair of roughly parallel lines of pits set at intervals along a common axis or series of axes. The pits are not thought to have held posts and are considered to have had a ritual function and to date from the prehistoric period (up to AD 400).



Pit circle

An enclosure of Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age date (c. 3200-1550 BC), related to henges, defined by a circular arrangement of pits, probably none of which held posts. More than one circle, concentrically arranged, may be present.



Pit-burial

A pit-burial can vary from an oval or subrectangular pit large enough to accommodate a crouched inhumation to a small circular pit with only space for a deposit of cremated bone or a cinerary urn. They date to the Bronze (c. 2400-500 BC) and Iron Ages (c. 500 BC - AD 400).



Pitfall trap

A pit for catching animals. These date from the prehistoric (c. 8000 BC - AD 400) to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Pitfield

Shallow oblong pits c.10m x c. 2-3m, with a depth of c. 0.5m, arranged in parallel rows placed c. 20-40m apart. These may be post-medieval in date, from the 17th century AD onwards.



Platform

An artificially raised area composed of earth or earth and stone. The platform may be defined by a stone revetment and the surface is usually level. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Platform - peatland

A non-linear artificially raised area, usually of wood, with or without a clear shape found in a peatland context. Although platforms can vary in size, the length rarely exceeds the width. These may date to any period from prehistory to the early medieval period (5th-12th centuries AD).



Post office

A building, department or shop where postal business is carried on. These date from the 18th century AD onwards.



Post row - peatland

A line of related posts, including stakes, in a peatland context. In certain instances, these may be the vestigial underpinnings of single-plank toghers. These may date from prehistory (c. 8000 BC - AD 400) to the early medieval period (5th-12th centuries AD).



Pottery works

A complex of buildings used for the manufacture of pottery. These may date from the later medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Pound

An enclosure where stray animals are confined until a fine has been paid for their release. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Prehistoric site - lithic scatter

A dense concentration of lithics in a spatially discrete area recovered from the surface, e.g. by fieldwalking, rather than from a particular archaeological context. These date from the prehistoric period (c. 8000 BC - AD 400).



Prison

An establishment where offenders are confined. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Promontory fort - coastal

An area defined by one or more banks/walls and/or fosses constructed across a promontory. These date from the prehistoric period onwards.



Promontory fort - inland

A defensive enclosure created by constructing one or more lines of ramparts across a neck of land, or a lake promontory, in order to defend or restrict access to a spur or promontory in an inland area. These date to the Iron Age (c. 500 BC - AD 400).



Pump

A machine used to raise and move water and other liquids. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Pump-house

A small pumping station. These date from the 19th century AD onwards.



Quarry

A place where stone, sand, gravel or clay was extracted.



Quay

A stone or timber landing-place built parallel to, or projecting out from, the shoreline, to serve in the loading and unloading of vessels. These date from the Iron Age (c. 500 BC - AD 400) onwards.



Rabbit warren

An artificial area used for the breeding and rearing of rabbits. These date from the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD) to the 19th century.



Racecourse

An area of ground which has been altered in some way to facilitate horse races or where a structure/structures associated with horse races has/have been erected. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Radial-stone enclosure

A circular level area, generally between 6m to 25m in diameter, defined by a series of radially-set stones which can be incorporated into a low enclosing bank of earth and/or stone; entrance features are not evident. The known distribution is confined to counties Cork and Kerry. Their association with stone circles and stone rows points to a middle/late Bronze Age date (c. 2400-500 BC) for these monuments. See also Cairn - radial-stone cairn.



Railway bridge

A bridge carrying a railway track across a river, valley, road, etc. These date from the 19th century AD onwards.



Railway station

A place where railway trains regularly stop for receiving and setting down/delivering passengers and freight. These date from the 19th century AD onwards.



Redundant record

Records classed as 'Redundant record' are those that fulfil one or more of the following criteria: (1) a record identifying a location where, according to documentary sources (e.g., published reference, cartographic sources) or personal communication, a monument might have existed, but which, on inspection, was found not to be an archaeological monument (e.g. a natural feature); (2) a record classified using a term which is now obsolete (e.g. ecclesiastical remains); (3) a record created in error, a duplicate record or one which has no supporting evidence recorded on file or in the database; (4) an archaeological object (i.e. an artefact), e.g. a quernstone; (5) a record entered as a 'Shipwreck'. Shipwrecks are recorded in a separate database.



Religious house - Augustinian canons

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Augustinian friars

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Augustinian nuns

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Augustinian, of Arrouaise nuns

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Benedictine monks

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Benedictine nuns

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Carmelite friars

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Cistercian monks

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Cistercian nuns

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Cluniac monks

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Dominican friars

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Franciscan friars

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Franciscan nuns (Poor Clares)

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Franciscan Third Order Regular

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Fratres Cruciferi

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Friars of the Sack

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Knights Hospitallers

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Knights Templars

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Monks of the Order of Tiron

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Order of St Thomas of Acon

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Premonstratensian canons

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - Trinitarians

A religious house as listed in A. Gwynn and R.N. Hadcock in 'Medieval Religious Houses Ireland' (1970) (Reprinted 1988). Irish Academic Press, Dublin. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house - unclassified

This term is used for religious houses that cannot be classified precisely. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Religious house nunnery - unclassified

This term applies to religious houses of nuns for which the affiliated order is unknown. These date to the later medieval period (12th-16th centuries AD).



Ring-ditch

A circular or near circular fosse, usually less than 10m in diameter and visible as cropmarks/soilmarks on aerial photographs. The function of these monuments is unknown as ring-ditches may be the remains of ploughed out barrows, round houses or other modern features and, in consequence, may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Ringfort - cashel

A roughly circular or oval area surrounded by a stone wall or walls. They functioned as residences and/or farmsteads and broadly date from 500 to 1000 AD. See Ringfort - rath for earthen equivalent.



Ringfort - rath

A roughly circular or oval area surrounded by an earthen bank with an external fosse. Some examples have two (bivallate) or three (trivallate) banks and fosses, but these are less common and have been equated with higher status sites belonging to upper grades of society. They functioned as residences and/or farmsteads and broadly date from 500 to 1000 AD. See Ringfort - cashel for stone equivalent.



Ringfort - unclassified

A roughly circular or oval area surrounded by an earthen bank with an external fosse (see Ringfort - rath) or a stone wall (see Ringfort - cashel). The term Ringfort - unclassified is used in instances where the surviving remains are insufficient to determine whether the monument was originally a rath or cashel. They functioned as residences and/or farmsteads and broadly date from 500 to 1000 AD.



Ritual site - holy tree/bush

A named tree or bush, sometimes associated with a particular saint, often considered to have miraculous properties. They are generally found in close proximity to holy wells and formed part of the associated patterns or rounds performed on certain days. They are known in Irish as 'bile', which translates as sacred tree, sometimes corrupted into the English words 'bell' or bellow'. These may have their origins in prehistory but are associated with devotions from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Ritual site - holy well

A well or spring, though in some unusual cases a natural rock basin, which usually bears a saint's name and is often reputed to possess miraculous healing properties. These may have their origins in prehistory but are associated with devotions from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Ritual site - holy/saint's stone

A stone which is associated with a particular saint, and may be considered to have certain miraculous properties. These may have their origins in prehistory but are associated with devotions from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Ritual site - holy/saint's stone (present location)

A stone which is associated with a particular saint, and may be considered to have certain miraculous properties. These may have their origins in prehistory but are associated with devotions from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards. In this case the holy/saint's stone has been moved from its original location.



Ritual site - pond

A body of still water artificially formed for ritual depositions. These are associated with the Bronze and Iron Ages (c. 2400 BC - AD 400).



Riverine revetment

A line of contiguous wooden planks or post and wattle walling or earthen bank built to retain a river bank or shore against water erosion or flooding. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Road - class 1 togher

A peatland trackway/causeway constructed of wood and intended to traverse a bog: these have a known orientation. In most instances they comprise substantial timber planks and have good structural definition. They may have several phases of construction indicative of long-term use and reuse. These may date from the Neolithic (c. 4000-2400 BC) to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Road - class 2 togher

A length of peatland trackway, constructed of wood, believed to be over 15m in length. These have a clear orientation and good structural definition. These may date from the Neolithic (c. 4000-2400 BC) to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Road - class 3 togher

A short stretch of peatland trackway, constructed of wood, up to 15m in length with a discernible orientation. It may not be possible to trace them beyond a single sighting. These have evidence of deliberate structure and are interpreted as laid down to cross a small area of bog. These may date from the Neolithic (c. 4000-2400 BC) to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Road - gravel/stone trackway - peatland

A roadway in a peatland context constructed wholly or substantially of gravel (including sand and clay), cobbles or stone slabs, or a combination of these. These predominately date to the medieval (5th-16th centuries AD) and later periods.



Road - hollow-way

An unpaved road consisting of a linear depression, usually with an earthen bank on one or both sides, and only found in association with medieval deserted settlement (12th-16th centuries AD). See Settlement deserted - medieval.



Road - road/trackway

A way, or section thereof, which has been deliberately constructed between places. These may be of any date from prehistory onwards.



Road - unclassified togher

A peatland trackway/causeway constructed of wood that cannot be classified as a class 1, class 2 or class 3 togher due to its form or lack of surviving evidence. These may date from the Neolithic (c. 4000-2400 BC) to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Rock art

Geometric and other motifs mostly pecked out, though some are incised, on earthfast boulders and rock outcrops, and occasionally on cist roofstones and standing stones. These associations suggest a Bronze Age date (c. 2400-500 BC), though perhaps with origins in the Neolithic (c. 4000-2400 BC). Rock art may be associated with metal deposits, boundaries and routeways.



Rock art (present location)

Geometric and other motifs mostly pecked out, though some are incised, on earthfast boulders and rock outcrops, and occasionally on cist roofstones and standing stones. In this case the rock art has been moved from its original location. These associations suggest a Bronze Age date (c. 2400-500 BC), though perhaps with origins in the Neolithic (c. 4000-2400 BC). Rock art may be associated with metal deposits, boundaries and routeways.



Rock scribing

Marks deliberately incised or cut into a stone surface. They can vary from a series of very fine lines to geometric patterns or anthropomorphic images. They occur principally on rock outcrops, boulder shelters, caves and megalithic tombs. The date of rock scribings is uncertain though some may be prehistoric. These carvings incorporate motifs that do not regularly fit within the accepted canon of prehistoric Passage tomb art or Rock art.



Rock scribing - folk art

Carvings deliberately incised or cut into a stone surface, depicting anthropomorphic images and sometimes geometric patterns. They appear to be post-medieval (AD 1600 -) or post-AD1700 in date.



Rock shelter

The area beneath a natural overhang at the base of a cliff or crag that was used for occupation, burial, etc. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Round tower

A tall, slender, freestanding tower, circular in plan, with wooden floors, usually carried on internal offsets and a pointed conical roof. They were built between the 10th and 12th century at early medieval churches, where they functioned as bell-towers. They are located to the north-west or south-west of the principal church with the doorway of the tower, well above ground level, often facing that of the church.



Salt works

Structure/structures used in the extraction or purification of salt, usually by the dehydration of brine, often in the form of pools where salt water was allowed to evaporate naturally. These date from the 17th AD century onwards.



Sarcophagus

A stone coffin sometimes embellished with sculpture. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Sarcophagus (present location)

A stone coffin sometimes embellished with sculpture. In this case the sarcophagus has been moved from its original location. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



School

An establishment in which people, usually children, are taught. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Sea wall

Non-military maritime flood and erosion defences. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Seaweed stand

These vary in form and can be built as circular stands for ricks of seaweed or short lengths of wall for drying sea-rods (Laminaria stems) or large rectangular enclosures built by the Government in the 1930s.



Settlement cluster

A group of houses and associated land plots arranged in close proximity to form a nucleated settlement.



Settlement deserted - medieval

An abandoned medieval settlement dating from the 13th century to 1550 AD consisting of a group of houses in close proximity with associated land plots, associated with a parish church and/or castle or tower house, often evident as earthworks.



Settlement platform

A raised area, often surrounded by waterlogged or boggy land, which has evidence of former human habitation. These may be of any date from prehistory onwards.



Shambles

Structure/structures where animals were slaughtered and/or where meat and fish were sold. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Sheela-na-gig

A small carved figure of a naked female posed in a manner which displays and emphasises the genitalia. They are found on Romanesque and later medieval churches and on the external walls of tower houses and town walls, providing a date range from the 12th to the 17th century AD. They probably functioned as a general protection against evil, though they are also associated in folk tradition with beneficial powers to assist fertility and/or childbirth. See also Exhibitionist figure.



Sheela-na-gig (present location)

A small carved figure of a naked female posed in a manner which displays and emphasises the genitalia. They are found on Romanesque and later medieval churches and on the external walls of tower houses and town walls, providing a date range from the 12th to the 17th century AD. They probably functioned as a general protection against evil, though they are also associated in folk tradition with beneficial powers to assist fertility and/or childbirth. In this case the sheela-na-gig has been moved from its original location. See also Exhibitionist figure.



Sheepfold

A pen or enclosure, usually constructed of drystone-walling, used for enclosing sheep. These date from the 18th century AD onwards.



Shrine

A stone structure built to house the relics of a saint. Some examples were erected in the form of a house/church with a steep-pitched roof. They are associated with early medieval ecclesiastical sites (5th-12th centuries AD).



Signal tower

A tower in a semaphore communication system erected around the east, south and west coasts of Ireland from Dublin to Malin Head between 1804 and 1806. Communication was with ships of the Royal Navy offshore and between adjacent signal stations along the coast. The towers were built to a standard design though not all are identical. Usually square in plan, they are two storeys high often with a first-floor doorway and are defended with machicolations and bartizans.



Slab-lined burial

A grave containing an extended inhumation; the sides of the grave are lined with slabs, and sometimes slabs are also used to cover the burial. The body is usually orientated east-west, with the head to the west, and there are usually no accompanying grave goods. These burials date from the 5th to the 8th century AD.



Slipway

A structure inclined towards the water on which a boat or ship may be built or lowered into the water. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Souterrain

An underground structure consisting of one or more chambers connected by narrow passages or creepways, usually constructed of drystone-walling with a lintelled roof over the passages and a corbelled roof over the chambers. Most souterrains appear to have been built in the early medieval period by ringfort inhabitants (c. 500 - 1000 AD) as a defensive feature and/or for storage.



Spa works/bath

A building incorporating baths with mineral water obtained from local springs. Immersion in these baths was/is thought to have beneficial qualities which promote good health. These date from the 18th century AD onwards.



Stable

A building in which horses are accommodated. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Standing stone

A stone which has been deliberately set upright in the ground, usually orientated on a north-east-south-west axis, although other orientations do occur, and varying in height from 0.5m up to 6m. They functioned as prehistoric burial markers, commemorative monuments, indicators of routeways or boundaries and date from the Bronze and Iron Ages (c. 2400 BC - AD 500), with some associated with early medieval ecclesiastical and burial contexts (c. 5th-12th centuries). See also Pillar stone.



Standing stone - pair

A small subgroup of stone rows comprising two stones, typically about 2m in height, generally set with their long axes in line. They are considered to have been aligned on various solar and lunar events and date from the Bronze and Iron Ages (c. 2400 BC - AD 500). See also Stone row.



Standing stone (present location)

A stone which has been deliberately set upright in the ground, usually orientated on a north-east-south-west axis, although other orientations do occur, and varying in height from 0.5m up to 6m. They functioned as prehistoric burial markers, commemorative monuments, indicators of routeways or boundaries and date from the Bronze and Iron Ages (c. 2400 BC - AD 500), with some associated with early medieval ecclesiastical and burial contexts (c. 5th-12th centuries). See also Pillar stone. In this case the standing stone has been moved from its original location.



Stepping stones

Stones placed in the bed of a stream or on wet ground to enable crossing on foot. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Steps

A series of flat-topped structures, usually made of stone or wood, used to facilitate a person's movement from one level to another. Use in this database is restricted to Early Christian ecclesiastical contexts (5th-12th centuries AD).



Stocks

An instrument of punishment consisting of a frame, usually wooden, with holes through which the ankles and/or wrists of a seated offender were restrained. In Ireland, these date from the 16th century up to the 19th century.



Stone circle

An approximately circular or oval setting of spaced, upright stones with their broad sides facing inwards, towards the centre. The Cork/Kerry series (see also Stone circle - five-stone and Stone circle - multiple-stone) is characterised by an uneven number of non-contiguous orthostats which decrease in height from the entrance stones to the recumbent stone opposite the entrance. By contrast the Ulster series is defined by low orthostats rarely exceeding 0.5m in height, which often occur in groups and are associated with long stone rows. There are indications that stone circles have their origin in the Neolithic (c. 4000-2400 BC) though they are primarily a Bronze Age ritual monument (c. 2400-500 BC), constructed within a sepulchral tradition.



Stone circle - embanked

A stone circle whose stones are positioned around the inner edge of a bank. These are dated to the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC)



Stone circle - five-stone

A distinctive form of stone circle found only in counties Cork and Kerry. It comprises a ring of five free-standing stones, symmetrically arranged so that one stone, the axial stone, is set directly opposite two stones, usually the tallest, marking the entrance to the circle. Characteristically, the stones reduce in height to the axial stone, which is set consistently in the south-western part of the circle. These circles are thought to have a ritual function and are dated to the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC). See also Stone circle and Stone circle - multiple-stone.



Stone circle - multiple-stone

A distinctive form of stone circle found only in counties Cork and Kerry. It comprises a ring of free-standing stones, uneven in number (between 7 and 19) and symmetrically arranged so that one stone, the axial stone, is set directly opposite two stones, usually the tallest, marking the entrance to the circle. Characteristically, the stones reduce in height to the axial stone, which is set consistently in the south-western part of the circle. The diameters of these circles rarely exceed 10m. These circles form part of the funerary/ritual tradition of the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC). See also Stone circle and Stone circle - five-stone.



Stone head

A stone carved 'in the round' to represent a human head. This class is used for discrete examples. See also Architectural fragments and Stone sculpture (iconic) for Iron Age examples. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Stone head (present location)

A stone carved 'in the round' to represent a human head. This class is used for discrete examples. See also Architectural fragments and Stone sculpture (iconic) for Iron Age examples. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Stone row

A row of three or more stones erected in a line. Two main types have been recognised - a Cork and Kerry group, in which the row comprises up to six stones, typically about 2m in height, with their long axes usually set in line, and a mid-Ulster group, where the row comprises numerous stones, usually not exceeding 1m in height, often found in association with cairns and stone circles. They are considered to have been aligned on various solar and lunar events and date to the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC). See also Standing stone - pair.



Stone sculpture

A stone which has been carved to produce a pattern, design or representation. See also Architectural fragment, Stone head, Stone sculpture - aniconic, Stone sculpture - iconic for Iron Age examples. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Stone sculpture - aniconic

Symbolic representation in carved stone. To be used only for stone sculpture of Iron Age date (c. 500 BC - AD 400).



Stone sculpture - aniconic (present location)

Symbolic representation in carved stone. To be used only for stone sculpture of Iron Age date (c. 500 BC - AD 400). In this case the stone sculpture - aniconic has been moved from its original location.



Stone sculpture - iconic

Partial or whole representation in carved stone of a person or animal. To be used only for stone sculpture of Iron Age date (c. 500 BC - AD 400).



Stone sculpture - iconic (present location)

Partial or whole representation in carved stone of a person or animal. In this case the stone sculpture - iconic has been moved from its original location. To be used only for stone sculpture of Iron Age date (c. 500 BC - AD 400).



Stone sculpture (present location)

A stone which has been carved to produce a pattern, design or representation. See also Architectural fragment, Stone head, Stone sculpture - aniconic, Stone sculpture - iconic for Iron Age examples. In this case the stone sculpture has been moved from its original location. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Stone trough

A long, narrow, stone container for the watering or feeding of animals but also used for a variety of domestic and industrial purposes. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Stoup (present location)

A stone basin to contain holy water, which is used by church goers to bless themselves. They are located near the entrance/s to the church. While often set into a niche, they can also be free-standing, supported on a pedestal, often with a straight side designed to abut the wall. Unlike pre-Reformation fonts, they do not have a drain hole. They date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Structure

A construction of unknown function, either extant or implied by archaeological evidence. These may date to any period from prehistory onwards.



Structure - peatland

Wood found in peat, which has been deliberately deposited or processed. These vary from single pieces to deposits without a clear form or orientation but which are indicative of an archaeological structure. These may be of any date from the Neolithic (c. 4000-2400 BC) to the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Sundial

A structure used to show the time of day by means of the sun shining on a 'gnomon', the shadow of which falls on the surface of the dial, which is marked with a diagram showing the hours. Can be freestanding, usually on a pillar, or fixed to a building. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Sweathouse

A small, simple, drystone structure, usually with a corbelled roof, used as a sauna. The entrance is usually low so that it can be easily blocked up when in use. They were reputed to cure a wide variety of ailments and were in use from at least the 18th century AD up to the mid-19th century.



Tannery

A manufacturing complex where the hides of animals are turned into leather, consisting of buildings for fleecing and drying, as well as treatment pits. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Tavern

A building specifically for the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Tennis court

A building for playing real tennis. These date from the 16th to 18th century AD.



Termon cross

A cross which marked an ecclesiastical boundary, such as that of a monastery. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD).



Terrace

An artificially raised area of ground, usually contained by a revetment, designed to create a flat space on sloping ground. Use in this database is restricted to Early Christian ecclesiastical contexts (5th-12th centuries AD).



Theatre

A building used primarily for the performance of plays. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Threshing floor

Threshing floor (outdoor): A specially flattened surface of various sizes from about 6m usually with a slight slope, circular in shape and paved with cobbles, slate or tiles. There is sometimes a retaining wall either very low or level with the ground. Used for threshing grain using human or animal feet, threshing boards or flails. These may date to any period from prehistory to the 19th century.



Tide mill - unclassified

A mill, including where present the millpond, powered by seawater. This classification is used, in the context of this database, when it is unclear whether the tide mill in question is vertical-wheeled or horizontal-wheeled. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards. See also Tide mill - vertical-wheeled, Tide mill - horizontal-wheeled, Water mill - horizontal-wheeled, Water mill - vertical-wheeled, Water mill - unclassified.



Timber circle

An approximately circular or oval setting of spaced post-holes indicating the former presence of a free-standing arrangement of upright timber posts. Often regarded as the wooden equivalent of a stone circle. These circles are thought to have a ritual function and are dated to the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC).



Tollhouse

A house by a toll gate or toll bridge where tolls/taxes are collected. These date from the 18th century AD onwards.



Tomb - chest tomb

A free standing, box-like funerary monument. These date from the 13th century AD onwards. Examples that are incorporated in a wall are classified as Wall monument. Examples with an effigy are classified as Tomb – effigial.



Tomb - chest tomb (present location)

A free standing, box-like funerary monument. These date from the 13th century AD onwards. In this case the tomb has been moved from its original location. Examples that are incorporated in a wall are classified as Wall monument. Examples with an effigy are classified as Tomb – effigial.



Tomb - effigial

A tomb or memorial with a covering slab which bears an incised or sculptural representation of the person or persons commemorated. These date from the 13th century onwards. Examples that are incorporated in a wall are classified as Wall monument – effigial. See also Tomb - chest tomb.



Tomb - effigial (present location)

A tomb or memorial with a covering slab which bears an incised or sculptural representation of the person or persons commemorated. These date from the 13th century onwards. In this case the tomb has been moved from its original location. Examples that are incorporated in a wall are classified as Wall monument – effigial. See also Chest tomb.



Tomb - hogback

A carved recumbent stone, covering a grave, with a distinctive curving profile, interpreted as representing the curved roof ridge of a Viking house. Dating to the 10th or early 11th century AD.



Tomb - table tomb

A type of tomb in the form of a slab raised on freestanding legs or columns. These date from the 17th century onwards. See also Tomb - chest tomb.



Tomb - unclassified

A funerary monument. This is used in this database where the evidence is not sufficient to enable it to be classed as one of the other funerary monument types (Graveslab, Headstone, Tomb - chest tomb, Tomb - effigial, Wall Monument, Wall monument – effigial). These date from the 13th century onwards.



Tomb - unclassified (present location)

A funerary monument. This is used in this database where the evidence is not sufficient to enable it to be classed as one of the other funerary monument types (Graveslab, Headstone, Tomb - chest tomb, Tomb - effigial, Wall Monument, Wall monument – effigial). In this case the tomb has been moved from its original location. These date from the 13th century onwards.



Town

A settlement of post-1700 AD date that occupied a central position in a communications network, functioned as a market centre and had a significant density of houses and associated land plots.



Town defences

Defensive fortifications such as ramparts, ditches and stone walls, built to defend a historic town of pre-1700 AD date.



Town hall

A large building used for the transaction of the public business of a historic town (pre-1700 AD), the holding of courts of justice, entertainments and other activities. In Ireland, town halls are sometimes colloquially referred to as tholsels.



Tram depot

A place where trams are maintained and refitted, etc. These date from the 19th and 20th centuries.



Tramway

A track inlaid into a surface, on which tram cars run for the conveyance of passengers and/or goods or raw materials.



Tunnel

A passage for a road excavated either underground or through rock. These are post-1700 AD in date.



Turf stand

A structure, usually rectangular, of drystone construction with a stone or earth/peat fill. The dried peat was stored in reeks on top. They date from the 18th up to the 20th century AD.



Urn burial

A burial accompanied by an urn where there is no indication of the context for the urn. These date to the Early Bronze Age (c. 2400-1550 BC). For urns found in pits see Pit-burial and for urns found in cists see Cist.



Viaduct

A bridge, usually resting on a series of arches, carrying roadways or railways over low-lying areas. These date from the 18th century AD onwards.



Wall monument

A memorial for the dead found in a church context. These range from elaborate architectural monuments with canopied niches or classical detailing to simple tablets inserted into, hanging from or standing against a wall, which bear an inscription and/or a coat of arms commemorating a person or persons. They date from the 13th century AD onwards. For wall monuments that include an effigy see Wall monument – effigial.



Wall monument - effigial

A memorial for the dead found in a church context. These consist of a wall monument (q.v.) that includes an incised or sculptural representation of the person or persons commemorated, sometimes with additional kneeling figures. These date from the 13th century AD onwards.



Wall monument (present location)

A memorial for the dead found in a church context. These range from elaborate architectural monuments with canopied niches or classical detailing to simple tablets inserted into, hanging from or standing against a wall, which bear an inscription and/or a coat of arms commemorating a person or persons. In this case the monument has been moved from its original location. They date from the 13th century AD onwards. For wall monuments that include an effigy see Wall monument – effigial.



Walled garden

A garden surrounded by a high wall, usually of stone, sometimes with an internal brick lining. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Warehouse

A building used for the storage of goods or merchandise. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Watchman's hut - burial ground

A small building within a burial ground used to house a watchman whose purpose was to prevent body snatching. These date to the 18th and 19th centuries AD.



Watchtower

A building or structure from which observation is kept of the approach of danger. These date from the 17th century AD onwards.



Water mill - horizontal-wheeled

A mill driven by water directed on to a horizontal mill-wheel from a river, stream or spring. They date primarily from the early 7th to the late 10th century AD. See also Tide mill - horizontal-wheeled.



Water mill - unclassified

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, powered by water. These date from the 7th century onwards. This classification is used, in the context of this database, when it is unclear whether the water mill in question is vertical-wheeled or horizontal-wheeled.



Water mill - vertical-wheeled

A mill, including where present the millrace and millpond, driven by water directed on to a vertical mill-wheel from a river, stream or spring. They date from the 7th century AD onwards and with the coming of continental monastic orders in the 11th century were adapted to other uses besides grinding corn, such as cloth-fulling and iron forging. See also Tide mill - vertical wheeled, Mill (various classes by function or product).



Watercourse

An artificial channel used for the conveyance of water. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Waterworks

Buildings, engineering constructions and machinery used for the purpose of supplying a town, etc. with water distributed through pipes. These are of post 1700 AD date.



Weir - fish

A barrier in the form of a wooden fence, stone wall or fixed net, of varying heights and forms, located on rivers, estuaries and coastal waters for the purpose of directing the passage of, or to divert fish into a trap. These may date from the Bronze Age (c. 2400-500 BC) onwards.



Weir - regulating

A dam constructed on the reaches of a canal or navigable river designed to retain the water and to regulate its flow. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Well

A structure enclosing or providing access to a water source. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards.



Windmill

A tower-like structure of stone, wood or brick with a wooden cap and sails which are driven around by the wind producing power to work the internal machinery. These date from the late medieval period (c. 1400 to the 16th century AD) onwards.



Workhouse

A 19th-century AD establishment for the provision of work for the unemployed poor of a parish; later an institution administered by Guardians of the Poor, in which paupers were lodged and the able-bodied set to work.